Agriculture in Arid Zone
Agriculture in Arid Zone is an area of research and development and a lot can be extracted from an arid zone. The arid zone is an area that lacks freshwater, have heat and sunlight in abundance, or suffers extreme winter cold, short rainy season. The region having strong dry winds, poor soil structure, over-grazing can also be considered as an arid zone.
Therefore, it can be seen that western India has an appreciable portion of land under the arid zone and therefore, it becomes necessary to know about agricultural insights in this area.
Crops that can be grown in Arid region
The prominent problem of an arid zone is the lack of fresh water and therefore the types of crops that can be cultivated in such areas are those which require such prevailing conditions for their sustainable growth.
The food crops that can be grown in Arid region includes
● Cereal grains like corn, sorghum, pearl millet, etc.
● The area is also suitable for leafy vegetables like cassava, comfrey, chaya, etc.
● Root crops like white Yam can also be cultivated in arid regions.
● Watermelon is also preferable in this zone. Various other fruits like papaya, guava, golden apple olive tamarind cashew also flourish well in such regions.
● Sunflowers and Shea butter also find the exorbitant sunlight aiding in their growth.
Apart from these food crops, several non-food crops can also be cultivated in arid regions. The list consists of timber plants, fiber plants, feed grass, feed legumes, etc.
Livestock in Arid region
Animals are a very important element in agriculture. They served various purposes and therefore must be required in agriculture. Livestock like goats, sheep, camels, burrows can sustain in arid regions also. Moreover, the above non-food crops can be used to feed them. Their bodies also evolve as per the climate condition but proper attention and care must be given to them.
Techniques of arid agriculture
● Reduce the runoff of water: The area having a deficiency of water must be very cautious with its use and therefore runoff is prevented to the extent waterlogging doesn't become an issue. Also, proper attention to be given at the time of tillage to avoid water runoff.
● Reduce evaporation
Tillage should be done in a manner that water from the soil doesn't evaporate easily.
Other than these, all such precautions must be taken that save crops from getting damaged in such an adverse climate. In fact, people are earning a lot by doing farming in such areas also. Only the choice of crops and techniques make a markable difference.
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