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SOYABEAN CULTIVATION

SOYABEAN CULTIVATION

Soyabean called golden beans to belong to the legume family. It is a native of East Asia. It is a rich source of Protein also an excellent source of fiber. Oil extracted from soybean contain a small amount of saturated fat. In Punjab, it plays an important role in crop diversification.      

It gives good results when grown on well-drained, fertile loamy soil. pH of 6 to 7.5 is favorable for the optimum yield of soyabean. Waterlogged, saline/alkaline soils are not suitable for its cultivation. Low temperatures affect crops severely. We can prepare the field by giving two to three ploughings followed by planking. The first fortnight of June is the best time for sowing Soyabean.
While sowing use row to row spacing of 45 cm and plant to plant spacing of 4-7 cm. Sow seeds at depth of 2.5-5 cm. Sow seeds with help of seed drill.

Fertilizer Requirements (kg/acre)

UREA

SSP

MURIATE OF POTASH

28

200

Apply if deficiency observed

 

Nutrient Requirements (kg/acre)

NITROGEN

PHOSPHORUS

POTASH

12.5

32

Apply if deficiency observed

 

To keep field weed-free, two hoeings are required, give first hoeing 20 days after sowing, and second hoeing 40 days after sowing.

To control weed chemically, after sowing, within two days, take spray of Pendimethalin@800 ml/acre in 100-200 liters of water.

In overall crop require three to four irrigation. Irrigation at the time of the pod filling stage is necessary. Water stress at this period will affect yield drastically. Apply irrigation depending upon rainfall conditions. No irrigation required in good rainfall conditions.

A soybean-corn rotation “is a good risk-management strategy for both crops,” says Shawn Conley, University of Wisconsin Extension soybean agronomist. Corn yields are 13% to 19% higher after soybeans, according to 30 years of the University of Wisconsin trials. Input costs are lower, and in weather stress years, soybeans and rotated corn are more resilient than continuous corn.

Pest and their control:

White Fly

For whitefly control, take spray of Thiamethoxam@40 gm or Triazophos@300 ml/acre. If necessary take the second spray 10 days after the first spray.

 

Tobacco caterpillar

 If infestation is observed, take spray of Acephate 57SP@800 gm/acre or Chlorpyriphos 20EC@ 1.5 ltr/acre. If necessary take the second spray 10 days after the first spray.

 

Hairy Caterpillar

 To control hairy caterpillar pick caterpillar manually and destroyed by crushing or putting in kerosene water when the infestation is low. In the case of high infestation, take spray of Quinalphos@300 ml or Dichlorvos@200 ml/acre.

 

Blister beetle

 They cause damage at the flowering stage. They feed on flowers, buds thus prevent grain formation.
If infestation is observed, take spray of Indoxacarb 14.5SC@200 ml or Acephate 75SC@800 gm/acre. Carry out spraying in evening hours and if necessary take the second spray 10 days after the first spray.        

 

Disease and their control:

Yellow mosaic virus

It is spread due to whitefly. Irregular yellow, green patches are observed on leaves. Pods not developed on infected plants.
Grow yellow mosaic virus-resistant varieties. For whitefly control, take spray of Thiamethoxam@40 gm, Triazophos@ 400 ml/acre. If necessary take the second spray 10 days after the first spray. 

 

Pods become dry and leave change their color to yellow and fall of, it is sign of crop is ready for harvesting. Harvest the crop with a sickle or by hand. After harvesting, carry out the threshing operation. 

After drying, carry out proper cleaning of seeds. Remove small size seeds, damaged seeds, and crop stalks.

 

Main Health Benefits

Soya is a good source of essential minerals including iron, magnesium, and potassium, as well as vitamins B6, E, K, and folate. It's naturally low in saturated fats and sodium and has a low glycaemic index, which means soy carbohydrates are released slowly and steadily to help keep blood sugar levels steady.

 

 

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